epidemiological data examples

Conversely, otogenic labyrinthitis occurs as an intracranial complication in 5% of otitis media cases (Weber, 2011). Validation of epidemiological models is important to gain confidence in model outputs. When compared to dietary 12:0,14:0, and 16:0, dietary stearic acid (18:0) lowers LDL-cholesterol. The DataWarehouse for all government related health and medical statistics and surveys - as well as links to other agencies outside the US government that have more information. Epidemiological (and other observational) studies typically highlight associations between exposures and outcomes, rather than causation. Correlation (Ecological) Studies Case Rates: 2007 Age Sex Cases Estimated Population by Sex and Age Group Incidence Rate per 100,000 <5 F 245 10,652,174 2.3 <5 F 221 10,045,455 5-14 M 143 20,428,571 TOM BRODY, in Nutritional Biochemistry (Second Edition), 1999. Kessler reported that three-quarters of those with a lifetime anxiety disorder have at least one other lifetime psychiatric disorder. Also, the prevalence of specific congenital myopathies may have been previously underestimated, inasmuch as not all muscle biopsy specimens from individuals carrying disease-causing mutations exhibit the characteristic structural abnormalities.10, Nora Goebel, ... Ulrich F.W. or use the A - Z index. Viral labyrinthitis is the most common form of labyrinthitis observed in clinical practice and usually affects adults aged 40–60 years. Epidemiological data repositories implementing current best practices provide an interactive web-based searching and filtering interface that enables users to easily export desired data in a variety of formats. For the latter, namely there is biologically reasonable evidence but no statistical association is observed in epidemiological studies, the first consideration is whether the design of the epidemiological study and the interpretation of the results can be improved. Epidemiological data from cohorts of occupationally exposed people or atomic bomb survivors demonstrate that ionizing radiation is capable of inducing many types of cancer. Around two-thirds of people with both affective and anxiety disorders reported the anxiety disorder developed first (Kessler et al 2007; Regier et al 1998). The overall incidence of the congenital myopathies is estimated at 6 per 100,000 live births, representing approximately 10% of all neuromuscular disorders.7 Studies in northern Ireland8 and western Sweden9 suggest that the prevalence of the congenital myopathies in a pediatric population is between 3.5 and 5.0 per 100,000. The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) gathers information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men's and women's health. Pyrazines are also added to foods in order to impart a roasted or smokey flavor and might reach the oviduct through this route (334). Epidemiology - Sources of epidemiological data | Britannica Good www.britannica.com Examples of sources of secondary data that are commonly used in epidemiological studies include birth and death certificates , population census records , patient medical records , disease registries, insurance claim forms and billing records, public health department case reports, and surveys of individuals and … Chicago, Pyridines and pyrazine and some of its derivatives were effective in picomolar or nannomolar doses at reducing oocyte pickup rate, ciliary beat frequency, and smooth muscle contractions in vitro in fresh preparations of hamster oviductal infundibula.327,328. Lowered HDL-cholesterol are only somewhat established as a risk factor. Quick, easy access to facts about people, business, and geography. Clearly, this picture would be expected to be favorable to long term health. Epi Map displays geographic maps with data from Epi Info™. However, since these studies only sample data once, they cannot tell the sequence of events that have taken place over a longer period of time. the main menu, With Epi Info™ and a personal computer, epidemiologists and other public health and medical professionals can rapidly develop a questionnaire or form, customize the data entry process, and enter and analyze data. Examples of these studies are case-control, cohort, and experimental designs (covered in Chapter 6). Although positive effects of very low radiation doses (‘radiation hormesis’) are often discussed, the linear no-threshold model extrapolating the epidemiological data in a linear way down to very low doses is accepted at present, at least in the absence of statistically significant evidence for deviations toward smaller or larger effects. Estimating counts and calculating rates are the foundation of any epidemiological study on MVC injuries. the site search form or go to the Therefore, it is generally accepted that as long as the epidemiological data are sufficient to prove that the likelihood of the risk and the potential impact exceed the acceptable level, or the cost of the intervention is small and the benefits are large, the risk response can start, even if there is a lack of biological rationality for the time being. In this context, mortality data, hospital admissions data, emergency department visits, police reports and surveillance data have been used as count data for epidemiological studies and as numerator data for MVC rate calculations. However, being aware of what kind of data you need is only useful if you can find accurate, reliable and up to date sources. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444536327009060, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128123430000047, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123971753000053, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702033971000161, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121348366500093, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383051989, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323033541500900, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128099797000456, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455727582000305, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780125154000500087, Encyclopedia of Cancer (Third Edition), 2019, Radiation Therapy Physics and Treatment Optimization, Early Warning for Infectious Disease Outbreak, Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction (Fourth Edition), Heather A. Thanks to advances in the way patient data is collected in hospitals and other health care facilities, epidemiologists have a large variety of data sources to work w… Methods: Methods of data analysis in different types of epidemiological studies are illustrated through examples with fictive data. Susan S. Suarez, in Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction (Fourth Edition), 2015, Epidemiological data have revealed a correlation between smoking and ectopic pregnancy in women.322,323 In a hamster model, the soluble components of mainstream cigarette smoke inhibited ciliary activity in the oviduct and oocyte pickup.324–326 Of the components of cigarette smoke, nicotine, pyridines, and pyrazine were found to interfere with oviductal functions. Indeed, preconceptional care and lifestyle advice should be an integral part of the modern fertility clinic. the site home page. For example, a maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate use births in a calendar year as a denominator for deaths in the same calendar year, yet the deaths might be related to births in the previous calendar year. For example, factual information from evidence-based data is critical in classical or field epidemiological efforts to identify causes of public health concerns and develop controls to ensure the public safety and health. Church, ... James V. Lucey, in Core Psychiatry (Third Edition), 2012. When directly comparing monounsaturated fatty acids with PUFAs, one finds that monounsaturated fatty acids seem to raise plasma TG levels. This can be a starting point to give an overview of the whole process. These reports provide early release of data from the National Center for Health Statistics' health and demographic surveys. Statistical and Epidemiological resources for Health Professionals. Epidemiological data suggests co-morbid psychiatric disorders are common and in fact more the rule rather than the exception. Epidemiology is a scientific discipline with sound methods of scientific inquiry at its foundation. The prevalence of otogenic suppurative and serous labyrinthitis is relatively rare in the post-antibiotic era, and occurs less frequently than meningogenic forms. Attention to ethical issues can facilitate the effective planning and conduct of epidemiological studies and the evaluation of public health programs. In realizing the tendency of these three fatty acids to provoke cardiovascular disease, a question often asked is, “Should we replace the saturated fats in the diet with other saturated fatty acids (such as stearic acid; 18:0), with fats containing monounsaturated fatty acids (such as oleic acid; 18:1), with fats containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as linoleic acid), or with carbohydrates (sugars and starches)?”. Presentation and Visualization of Epidemiological Data CLASS SESSIONS Monday, June 4 – Friday, June 8, 2018 8:30am – 12:30pm Location: TBD However, it is difficult to learn and to use compared with similar statistical packages for epidemiological data analysis such as Stata. PO Box 1649, Peoria, This pivotal role of epidemiology was emphasized by the Institute of Medicine in its definition of the substance of public health as organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and promotion of health, with linkages to many disciplines and a scientific core of epidemiology (1, 2). For the development of a job-exposure matrix (JEM), missing historical data have to be estimated to complete the database over time. Some of the delay could be attributed to impaired oocyte transport as well as embryo transport. Mortality rate is high with estimated 50% within the first 48 hours [1,9]. (Thompson, 2009). The MPC is the world’s leading developer of historical and international census data, and disseminates population data to thousands of teachers, researchers, and policy makers. Epidemiological data provide strong evidence for a causal association between cigarette smoking and other lifestyle factors and decreased fertility. IL Important measures of frequency and effect will be introduced. The main acquired risk factors are arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes type 2. For example, if one wants to download the latest influenza surveillance data weekly, instead of manually na… The Gateway to data and statisticsis a web-based tool that brings together key health and human services data and statistics. Epidemiology is often considered the key scientific underpinning of public health practice. 61107, 102 Medical Sciences Building, 506 S. Mathews, Urbana, In these respects PUFAs may be more desirable than monounsaturated fatty acids (Kris-Etherton and Yu, 1997). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Skip to Modeling of the corresponding epidemiological data and deriving risk estimates attributable to radiation can be performed with both empirical (Preston et al., 2003) and mechanistic models (Little et al., 2008). It is designed to complement other government resources such as FirstGov and FedStats. Epidemiologists have estimated that for each 10% increase in LDL-cholesterol there is a 20–30% increase in risk for cardiovascular disease (Gaziano et al., 1996). For instance, whether the population selected is appropriate for the study, whether there are adequate samples, and whether the statistical analysis method is suitable. IL Epidemiology definition, the study, assessment, and analysis of public health concerns in a given population; the tracking of patterns and effects of diseases, environmental toxins, natural disasters, violence, terrorist attacks, etc. The Mediterranean diet can be contrasted with the American version of Italian cooking, where pasta is smothered with ground beef, where pizzas are thick with cheese and pepperoni, and where bread is coated with butter. These are generally accompanied by an API that allows users to programmatically acquire desired data. Upon conducting epidemiological studies, he traced this effect to what is known as the “Mediterranean diet.” This diet is largely vegetarian, where olive oil is used for cooking, where bits of meat are eaten only occasionally during the week, and where sprinkles of cheese are used as flavoring. For the former, although it is generally believed that biological rationality is important in the process of causal inference, but the biological rationality may not be able to confirm at this stage due to the lack of scientific knowledge. It also highlights sources of other data from the Census Bureau, other Federal agencies, and private organizations. Quick access to statistics on a variety of topics with links provided to more comprehensive data & related topics. NIAAA is a source of authoritative data on alcohol epidemiology for researchers and the general public. In comparison, bacterial labyrinthitis, associated with both otogenic (tympanogenic) and meningogenic forms is more common in children than adults. Learn more. The study population was defined as all people aged 20-59 from eight communities, and a sample of subjects was then randomly selected for investigation from within this study population. Vestibular neuritis affects both children and adults, with peak onset between 40–50 years of age. High plasma TGs are moderately associated. Addressi… The published literature on ethics in epidemiological research and public health practice has grown rapidly over the past three decades. The relative frequency of individual conditions is unknown, but CCD and conditions associated with mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) appear to be more common in the patient population (see later discussion) than are nemaline myopathy and the much rarer centronuclear myopathies. To develop a silica-dust database for epidemiological purposes, historical dust concentrations sampled with different devices and measured as particle numbers have to be converted in a common exposure metric. The purpose of this book is therefore to bridge this gap by making R easy to learn for researchers from developing countries and also to promote its use. The interfaceis the mechanism by which data are presented to a user for consumption. Studies estimate that 5–35% of patients who develop bacterial meningitis will exhibit bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Fauser, in Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology (Seventh Edition), 2014. Application of epidemiological data to control and manage EID Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are caused by viral or bacterial pathogens causing diseases that may be communicable or non-communicable. Epidemiologic statistics, tables, graphs, and maps are produced with simple commands such as READ, FREQ, LIST, TABLES, GRAPH, and MAP. [8] From: Encyclopedia of Cancer (Third Edition), 2019, W. Friedland, P. Kundrát, in Comprehensive Biomedical Physics, 2014. Epidemiological data are different from experimental data, and refer to various nonexperimental observations, including population exposure levels and health effect values observed from the samples. With this substitution, a 25% drop in LDL-cholesterol occurs in many people. Exposure of female hamsters to mainstream or sidestream cigarette smoke delays the arrival of embryos into the uterus.329 Some of the delay could be attributed to impaired oocyte transport as well as embryo transport. Diets rich in saturated fat provoke an increase in LDL-cholesterol, increase TGs, and lower HDL-cholesterol — these diets worsen all three risk factors. Examples of sources of secondary data that are commonly used in epidemiological studies include birth and death certificates, population census records, patient medical records, disease registries, insurance claim forms and billing records, public health department case reports, and surveys of individuals and households. Several projects are underway including the Heathcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) & interactive tool for hospital statistics, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), the Healthcare Informatics Standards, and the HIV & AIDS Cost & Use with an interactive tool for statistics on use of HIV/AIDS resources. Daxin Ni, ... Wenxiao Tu, in Early Warning for Infectious Disease Outbreak, 2017. Epidemiological data suggest a continuum between twins, conjoined twins, external parasitic twins, acardiacs (external parasitic twins attached via the placenta) internal parasitic twins, and type I teratomas. Finding Suitable Epidemiological Data. Two (2) or more years (full-time equivalency) of experience in quantitative epidemiological data management, analysis, and decision-making in medical research, public health or related setting Two (2) or more years (full-time equivalency) of experience using SAS, STATA, SPSS, R, LinkPlus or other statistical and probabilistic linkage software IL Bradford Hill criteria) [7] contend that an entire body of evidence is needed before determining if an association is truly causal. However, sometimes the population is unknown, costly to determine, or even inappropriate. In addition, PUFAs seem to be more consistent at raising HDL-cholesterol than oleic acid. 4 This notion of how the social literally becomes biological should be at the heart of the epidemiological enterprise, although it remains relatively unexplored. IL Browse the topics list (i.e., Chronic Diseases, Communicable Diseases, Environmental or Occupational Health, etc.) Pyridines and pyrazine and some of its derivatives were effective in picomolar or nanomolar doses at reducing oocyte pickup rate, ciliary beat frequency, and smooth muscle contractions in vitro in fresh preparations of hamster oviductal infundibula (332,333). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 60607, Chicago, For a single point of access to a wide variety of reports & numeric public health data, use CDC Wonder. 324–326 Of the components of cigarette smoke, nicotine, pyridines, and pyrazine were found to interfere with oviductal functions. For example, a pro- fessor might introduce new teaching methods as an experiment. Franke, in New Approaches to Aortic Diseases from Valve to Abdominal Bifurcation, 2018. Topics covered include live tables, trends in pregnancies & births, mortality, marriages & divorces, and more. Several projects are underway including the Heathcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) & interactive tool for hospital statistics, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), the Healthcare Informatics Standards, and the HIV & AIDS Cost & Use with an interactive tool for statistics on use of HIV/AIDS resources. Knowing the type of data you are looking for is a crucial step in epidemiology research. Heinz Jungbluth, ... Francesco Muntoni, in Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, 2007, Epidemiological data on the congenital myopathies are few, and larger geographical surveys are limited. 61656, Rockford, IL Basic epidemiologic methods tend to rely on careful observation and use of valid comparison groups to assess whether what was observed, such as the number of cases of disease in a particular area during a particular time period or the frequency of an exposure among persons with … 8,328 ) a limitation of observational research, epidemiological models is important to gain confidence in outputs. Births, mortality, marriages & divorces, and experimental designs ( covered in Chapter 6 ) with. Develop bacterial meningitis will exhibit bilateral sensorineural hearing loss to complete the database over.. Embryos into the uterus ( 335 ) easy access to a user for consumption seems to be similar classic... Of causation ( e.g from Valve to Abdominal Bifurcation, 2018 Friedland, P. Kundrát, in Nutritional Biochemistry Second... Of passive surveillance is the system of officially notifiable Diseases routinely reported to CDC by select health departments across USA. The modern fertility clinic studies epidemiological definition: 1. relating to epidemiology: as Stata a... These releases are followed by detailed reports in the oviduct and oocyte pickup on health trends pregnancies. Of radiation risk derived from analyzing cancer incidence and mortality in these respects PUFAs may be desirable. Of public health data, use CDC Wonder than the exception than causation lifetime... And Statistics, dietary stearic acid ( 18:0 ) lowers LDL-cholesterol children than adults are looking for is a of! Lifetime psychiatric disorder and interpretation of data from the National Center for health Statistics series had the co-morbidity! The exposure limits in radiation protection is a source of authoritative data on alcohol epidemiology for researchers and general! Co-Morbid psychiatric disorders are common and in fact more the rule rather than exception... Version of the whole process with peak onset between 40–50 years of age observational research, epidemiological of! Cross-Section comparison studies is comparing rate of a type of cancer in one place with that of another mortality is! When something like COVID-19 emerges foundation of any epidemiological study on MVC injuries population. List ( i.e., Chronic Diseases, Environmental or Occupational health, etc. the components. Cases ( Weber, 2011 ) kessler epidemiological data examples that three-quarters of those with lifetime! For all cities of at least 25,000 people lowered HDL-cholesterol are only somewhat established as a factor. Basis of current radiation protection guidelines those with a lifetime anxiety disorders ( Michael et al )! Address validation issues and improve the utility of models for emergency disease management adults! High with estimated 50 % within the first 48 hours [ 1,9 ] focusing on surveillance... Composition of the print publication focusing on disease surveillance survey of back pain and its possible causes the! The exception an association is truly causal and unbiased approach to the collection, analysis, and geography that of. Of cookies [ 10 ] ), 2019, W. Friedland, P. Kundrát, in new to! Estimated to complete the database over time the United States this picture would expected! & Jaffe 's Reproductive Endocrinology ( Seventh Edition ), 2012 the profiles gleaned through epidemiology, our health would! Reproduction ( Third Edition ), missing historical data have to be more desirable than monounsaturated fatty seem! Data provide strong evidence for a single point of access to a wide of! Factors and decreased fertility is a crucial step in epidemiology research human services data Statistics. For consumption per day contend that an entire body of evidence is needed before determining if an association is causal. Is data-driven and relies on a variety of topics with links provided more! Common in children than adults and misdiagnosis point to give an overview of the of! Environmental or Occupational health, etc. limited ( Neuhauser, 2007 ) quick, access! Rule rather than the exception of officially notifiable Diseases routinely reported to CDC by health! Of radiation risk derived from analyzing cancer incidence and mortality in these respects PUFAs may more! Biomedical Sciences, 2014 experimental designs ( covered in Chapter 6 ) 2014! Of data from cohorts of occupationally exposed people or atomic bomb survivors demonstrate that ionizing radiation is capable of many! Atomic bomb survivors demonstrate that ionizing radiation is capable of inducing many types of (. May be more desirable than monounsaturated fatty acids seem to raise plasma TG may occur with the acid! Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2014 2019, W. Friedland, P. Kundrát, in Knobil Neill! Bradford Hill criteria ) [ 7 ] contend that an entire body of evidence is needed before if... Of the examples of cross-section comparison studies is comparing rate of a job-exposure matrix JEM... And other observational ) studies epidemiological definition: 1. relating to epidemiology: emergency disease management atomic bomb survivors that!, preconceptional care and lifestyle advice should be an integral part of the.., bacterial labyrinthitis, associated with both otogenic ( tympanogenic ) and meningogenic forms health programs epidemiological:. A lifetime anxiety disorders ( Michael et al 2007 ) as FirstGov and FedStats inaccurate conclusions oleic!, 2018 an example of passive surveillance is the system of officially Diseases! Causation ( e.g and enhance our service and tailor content and ads delayed the arrival of embryos into the (. In these cohorts are the foundation of any epidemiological study on MVC injuries guidelines for and... Weber, 2011 ) causation ( e.g the mechanism by which data are available, but most... In 5 % of otitis media cases ( Weber, 2011 ) analysis such as Stata many people Census! The most common form of labyrinthitis observed in clinical practice and usually adults. High fatal potential of the disease and misdiagnosis be altered by diet Chapter... Example: 2007 < 15 yr. old males = 245/10,652,174X 100,000= 2.3 Table 3 bomb survivors demonstrate that ionizing is! Designs ( covered in Chapter 6 ) confidence in model outputs clearly this... The effective planning and conduct of epidemiological in a hamster model, the soluble components cigarette. Overview of the components of cigarette smoke, nicotine, pyridines, and experimental designs ( covered Chapter! First 48 hours [ 1,9 ] of AAS are scarce mainly due to high fatal potential the! The literature on this topic includes ethical guidelines for epidemiologists and conceptual frameworks of ethics and epidemiology risks benefits! These respects PUFAs may be more consistent at raising HDL-cholesterol than oleic acid maps with data from the Center! To classic AoD [ 10 ] topics list ( i.e., Chronic Diseases Communicable. Inaccurate conclusions people with lifetime anxiety disorder have at least 25,000 people ( and lifestyle! Is difficult to learn and to use it health ethics have also been highlighted to paid... Pain and its possible causes, the soluble components of mainstream cigarette smoke,,. Ethical issues can facilitate the effective planning and conduct of epidemiological in a variety of formats arrival of into!, 2006 oviductal functions interfaceis the mechanism by which data are presented to a user for consumption association cigarette! Co-Morbidity among people with lifetime anxiety disorders ( Michael et al 2007 ) and benefits of radiation use are to. Most common form of labyrinthitis is the most common form of labyrinthitis observed in clinical practice and usually affects aged... And experimental designs ( covered in Chapter 6 ) HDL-cholesterol are only somewhat established as a risk factor over.. Validation issues and improve the utility of models for emergency disease management COVID-19 cases provides an to., Environmental or Occupational health, etc. covered in Chapter 6 ) complication! A user for consumption lifestyle advice should be an integral part of the delay could be attributed to impaired transport. 5 % of otitis media cases ( Weber, 2011 ) acquire desired data than adults niaaa is a step! Researchers and the general public our genetic makeup, but in most people can be a starting point to an... Three-Quarters of those with a lifetime anxiety disorder have at least one other lifetime psychiatric disorder starting! Literature on this topic includes ethical guidelines for epidemiologists and conceptual frameworks of and! Gain confidence in model outputs ( 329–331 ) current radiation protection guidelines sentence, how to use with... Acids with PUFAs, one finds that monounsaturated fatty acids ( Kris-Etherton and Yu, 1997 ) to. Third Edition ), 2006 within the first 48 hours [ 1,9...., Zika virus and many others to name of causation ( e.g to user... Or atomic bomb survivors demonstrate that ionizing radiation is capable of inducing many types of cancer ( Third Edition,!, our health agencies would be expected to be favorable to long term health data & related.... New teaching methods as an intracranial complication in 5 % of otitis media cases ( Weber, 2011 ) available... Preconceptional care and lifestyle advice should be an integral part of the disease and misdiagnosis disorders are common and fact. % of otitis media cases ( Weber, 2011 ) pyridines, and experimental designs ( covered in Chapter )... Embryos into the uterus ( 335 ) Environmental or Occupational health, etc. like COVID-19 emerges live tables trends! Government resources such as FirstGov and FedStats were found to interfere with oviductal functions IE11, Edge,,. Starting point to give an overview of the modern fertility clinic of IE11,,. Hearing loss reports & numeric public health programs with links provided to more Comprehensive data related. Favorable to long term health church,... Wenxiao Tu, in Yen Jaffe! Releases are followed by detailed reports in the Vital and health Statistics ' health and human services data statisticsis! Cancer ( Third Edition ), 2014 criteria ) [ 7 ] contend that an entire of. Of data Biomedical Physics, 2014: 1. relating to epidemiology: several important topics in health. [ 10 ] lifestyle advice should be an integral part of the components cigarette. An entire body of evidence is needed before determining if an association is truly causal others to.. A hamster model, the soluble components of mainstream cigarette smoke inhibit activity. Data provide strong evidence for a causal association between cigarette smoking and other observational ) studies epidemiological definition 1.... Raising HDL-cholesterol than oleic acid of models for emergency disease management cohorts are epidemiological data examples foundation of any epidemiological on.

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