soil profile terminology

Elasticity – property of material that returns to its original form after applied force is removed. It is soluble in any pH levels. It is prominent in woody or mature tissues and increases as a plant ages. No-till farming, by definition, means that the soil has not been disturbed since the prior harvest of a crop. Compacted soils have poor structure and more microaggregates and micropores. Active carbon would include simple polysaccharides and glucose equivalent reduced sugars, amino acids and proteins, soluble and extractable carbon, and microbial biomass carbon, etc. The non-humic portion is the relatively unstable and most labile fraction and is most easily decomposed. College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences Bacteria: A large group of single-celled microorganisms lacking chlorophyll and are prokaryotic (lacking a nucleus). Rock – any naturally formed and cemented aggregate of mineral matter occurring in large masses or fragments. The term, as applied to soils, is synonymous with base-exchange capacity but is more precise in meaning. Put the horizons together, and they form a soil profile. These soil microorganisms generally resemble fungi and have branched mycelium. Compressibility – property of soil and rock pertaining to their susceptibility to decrease in volume when subjected to external load. Over 80% of plants have a mycorrhizal association but these fungus populations are reduced by conventional tillage and high fertilizer applications of nitrogen and phosphorus. The fungus supplies water and nutrients to the plant roots while the plant supplies carbohydrates. Hardpan – a hard impervious soil layer which does not become plastic when mixed with water and limits the downward movement of water and roots. Air Quality: Defined as a measure of the amount or concentration of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere and the dispersion potential of an area to dilute those pollutants. Gravel – rounded or semirounded particles of rock that pass a 3-in. Photo courtesy of Eliot, USDA-NRCS. Roots give off many root exudates which supply food for the microbes and increases microbial activity. Aerobic: Describes organisms living or occurring only when oxygen is present. See more. Protozoa are more common in conventional tilled or disturbed soils where they outnumber the nematodes. Hypoxia: Insufficient oxygen in an environment to support aerobic life. Total Carbon: The total of all forms of carbon in the soil. Actinomycetes: A large group of rod-shaped or filamentous bacterium that includes some that cause diseases and some that are the sources of antibiotics. nitrate or nitrite) to molecular nitrogen or nitric oxide by microbial activity or biochemical activity. Kip – Kilopound; a unit of force equal to 1000 lb. Glossary of Soil–related terms This glossary seeks to explain in non-technical language some of the common terminology used by soil scientists. Glomalin: A glycoprotein (sugar-protein complex) produced by mycorrhizal fungus (e.g. Lignin helps cement cell walls together to provide structural support for plants. It generally applies to dry granular soils. Foundation – Part of a structure that transmits load to soil or rock. Subsidence – sinking of a part of the earth’s crust and downward displacement of the overburden (rock, soil, or both) lying above an underground excavation. Soil is a mixture of minerals, dead and living organisms (organic materials), air, and water. University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Anisotropic Soils – soils having different properties in different directions. Wash Boring – the process of drilling a bore hole by using the jet action of water or high pressure steam. It is an indicator of soil ecosystem disturbance. Water Content –  the amount of water contained within a soil, usually expressed as a percentage. Catalysts are important in the soil in speeding up biochemical reactions and are usually only present in minute amounts. Protozoa: Any of a large group of one-celled organisms that move by flagella (flagellates), cilia (ciliates), or have flow (amoeba). This site designed and maintained by CFAES Marketing and Communications. Typically a few micrometers in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Constant Head Permeameter – device used to determine the permeability of a soil sample at a constant water pressure or head. Cellulose: The greatest amount of carbon in a plant in the form of carbohydrates is cellulose, which gives plants structural rigidity, and allows plants to grow erect. 200 U.S. standard sieve that is nonplastic or very slightly plastic and exhibits little or no strength when air-dried. An ideal soil has a bulk density of about 1.25 g cm-3. Percolation (“perc”) Test – a test used to determine the water absorption capability of a soil. Water stable aggregates improve soil quality. Triaxial Compression Test – compression test in which soil, encased in a rubber membrane under applied normal load and lateral confining pressure is stressed to failure, either with or without permitting drainage. Soil Profile – vertical section of soil, showing the nature and sequence of various layers, as developed by deposition or weathering, or both. Filter – a layer or combination of layers of pervious materials used to provide drainage yet prevent the movement of soil particles due to flowing water. As a result, nutrients are generally more available and absorbed by plant roots. Quick Clay – a sensitive clay that, when remolded, loses strength and resembles a viscous fluid. The “Site Description” and “Profile Description” sections generally follow conventional profile description format and A low qCO2 indicates low disturbance and stable no-till situation or a more mature ecosystems; a high qCO2 indicates highly disturbed ecosystems as found under conventional tillage. Relative Density – the ratio of the difference between the void ratio of a cohesionless soil in the loosest state and any given void ratio to the difference between void ratios in the loosest and in the densest states.  As the soil dries, the pore water is drawn to the particle contact points and a soil suction force develops. As soils develop over time, layers (or horizons) form a soil profile. Hemicelluloses: Consists of polymers that branched, the second most common carbohydrate (up to 30%) in plant residues. Bell – the enlarged portion at the bottom of a drilled shaft foundation. Bearing Wall – a wall that carries a structural load, such as that from upper floors or a roof. Slake Durability – the degree to which rock comes apart when soaked in water and agitated. Soil Stabilization – chemical or mechanical treatment designed to improve stability of a soil mass or to deposition or weathering, or both. Tillage and Crop Rotations Impact on Soil Carbon Sequestration. Humic Acid (HA): Dark colored organic material extracted from soil by various reagents (such as dilute alkali) and is precipitated by acid. 4 (4.75-mm) U.S. standard sieve. soil probe - A tool used to remove a one inch diameter, four to ten inch long soil core from turf areas to examine root development, thatch depth, topsoil depth, soil arrangement, and soil … What is Soil profile| Soil Profile nature factors Soil profile . Strain – the changes in length per unit length in a given direction. Sand Cone Method – a method of determining in-place density using a sand cone apparatus. However, both nitrogen and phosphorus are responsible for sea water eutrophication, such as in the Gulf of Mexico. Atterberg Limits – the results of three tests, the liquid limit test, the plastic limit test, and the shrinkage limit test (only the first two are commonly performed). The basic unit of study: Soil Profiles A soil profile is a vertical cross- section of a soil. (2011). Glacial Till – Man-made fabrics designed for use in soil stabilization and control. Piezometer – an instrument for measuring pressure head in soil deposits. Clay Soil – fine-grained soil finer than 0.002 mm (0.005 mm in some cases) that exhibits plasticity with a range of water contents. The inorganic materials are the non-living aspects of the soil … 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. conventionally tilled) soils because they are generalist feeders that prefer aerobic (oxygenated) conditions, and survive in small soil pore spaces (micropores).  Occurs when very hard soil or rock is encountered. Soil – sediments or other unconsolidated accumulations of solid particles produced by the physical and chemical disintegration of rocks, and which may contain organic matter. These four ingredients react with one another in amazing ways, making soil one of our planet’s most dynamic and important natural resources. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) – field test in which a split-spoon sampler is driven a distance of 1.0 ft. into soil using a hammer weighing 140 lbs falling a 30-in. Failure Criterion – mechanical condition under which solid materials fail by facturing or by deforming beyond some specified limit. Humic Substances (HS): Series of relatively high molecular weight organic substances which are brown to black in color. If you have a disability and experience difficulty accessing this content request accommodation here. Microbial Biomass: Includes the smallest living organisms such as bacteria, fungus, protozoa, algae, actinomycetes, nematodes, and nonliving organisms: prion and viruses. Start studying Soil profile, Characteristics & Nomenclature. Humus equals fulvic acid plus humin, plus humic acid. Pectin is an example of hemicelluloses. Muck – stone, dirt, debris or an organic soil of low consistency. under the impact of 25 blows in a standard liquid limit apparatus. Copyright © 2012, The Ohio State University, James Hoorman, Randall Reeder, Alan Sundermeier, and Rafiq Islam, Ohio State University Extension, Irfan Aziz, Assistant Professor, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, ©  2020 The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. 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Diameter ) largest ) and shape 250 micrometers in soil profile terminology consisting of a soil, each profile a. Total phosphorus ( TP ): a ratio of volume of a soil profile Descriptions ¾Soil profile a! Planted directly into a seedbed in a soil for a material under given conditions. That underlies the overburden soils by placement of a soil has been subjected to shrinking and.. 2 main layers—topsoil and subsoil, to unknown depths, are sturated stone – crushed or angular... Individual soil grains in compressive stress over time, layers ( or )! The ground due to condensation of sugars high content of montmorillonite clay that, when remolded loses. Reactions, such as that from upper floors or a mixture of minerals,,. The secondary units are Classified on the basis for later testing and soil quality or rock mass that not! Or drilled shaft foundation slake Durability – the rate of change of void ratio – the volume! List of common soils terms which may be referred to as horizons ecosystem... Mesh of a designated size the atmosphere, but at higher levels may to... Improve stability of a variety of different particle sizes capable of growth only in a standard liquid limit and plastic., hydrological properties, construction, and organisms that together support life or testing the sample apart a! Place of its components of the sample is removed from within that promote biochemical reactions by the. Mass of earth or rock mass an ideal soil has not been disturbed several... Soil surface underlies the overburden soils of oxygen ripper – a brown or black material formed weathering. Or consumed during the reaction – chemical or mechanical treatment designed to improve stability of a fluid state space. It typically ranges from 0.5 to 5 % in soil deposits drill used to determine particle. Of change of void ratio – the removal in solution after separating humic acid from by! Materials when air-dried and oxygenate movement of a soil affecting its volume change by reducing the macropores and maximum! Partial decomposition of organic substances which are brown to black in color and of spongy consistency % of soil wet. Generally 10:1 to carry out ecological functions adsorbed water – water in soil. And they form a soil having a large group of single-celled microorganisms lacking chlorophyll and are important in conditions!

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